A Course in. Language. Teaching. Practice and theory. Penny Ur. CAMBRIDGE TEACHER TRAINING. AND DEVELOPMENT. Series Editors: Marion Williams. Help Center; less. pdf. A Course in Language Teaching % Practice and theory Penny Ur CAMBRIDGE TEACHER TRAINING AND DEVELOPME Pages. A Course in Language Teaching – Practice and theory by Penny Ur. Looking at Language Classrooms – A teacher development video package.
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Part II – Teaching the language (1): The “what”. Module 4: Teaching pronunciation. Unit One: What does teaching pronunciation involve? Unit Three: Improving. Download Citation on ResearchGate | A Course in Language Teaching: practice and theory | Reimpresión en Incluye bibliografía e índice. Get Free Read & Download Files A Course In Language Teaching Practice And Theory Trainee Book PDF. A COURSE IN LANGUAGE TEACHING PRACTICE.
In order to test for potential differences in scores from the quantitative questions, a within subjects repeated measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance MANOVA was conducted see Table 3. Agreement on items 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 helped respond to the first two research questions related to the need and benefit of SLA theories learning for content area teachers and how this benefited them.
Respondents agreed that SLA theory enhanced their practice by integrating content and language instruction for them. Table 3.
A course in language teaching : practice and theory
Specifically, in the first broad theme regarding what teachers need and want with regard to SLA, participants focused on how SLA helped them to update their knowledge and skills and ultimately, to be more effective. They also indicated that SLA gave them a better understanding of ESL strategies, helped to clarify prior held misunderstandings, and held that it expanded their role as content teachers.
These reflections became the emergent themes in this study: 1 needs and benefit, 2 caveats, 3 application of theory, 4 aspects of SLA, 5 challenges, and 6 applicability of SLA for colleagues.
Need and benefit. In the following section, we will highlight some of the qualitative data that illustrates this assertion, and then show how other teachers agreed, but with caveats.
A couple of respondents highlighted the need of SLA in terms of knowledge about language development. One mentioned that: PD should definitely include SLA theory since our students are coming from all over the world.
Ur Penny. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice of Theory
Teachers need to be trained on how language develops so that they are more sensitive and knowledgeable of the stages children progress through during their learning. While another respondent believed that Linguistics should be part of the training that we receive… it was never even mentioned to me during the certification process.
From these and other similar comments, we understood that, in general, the mainstream teachers held positive attitudes toward learning about SLA in their PD. Another concurred, stating that: Teachers should be given SLA theory because there is a lot of misunderstanding among teachers.
Teachers keep using outdated teaching methods because they believe they know the latest information on what they are doing.
It is frustrating to try to implement new strategies with teachers believing in old strategies. However, while some teachers were highly positive about the need for SLA, others were more cautious. Some of the participants agreed that SLA theory was necessary and important, but focused on applications: I believe that SLA theory [can [emphasis added] be presented in PD conferences, however, it should be presented with both[emphasis added] theory and practical applications of the theory That is the key--providing to the workshop attendee something that they can utilize in their classroom to improve instruction, because to do less is to waste time and money of the teacher, as well as the district, and ultimately the taxpayers who are paying for their training.
Clearly, this teacher was concerned about how the theory would be used to make a positive impact in the classroom and the schools overall.
In the following section, the responses highlight the particular ways the teachers were able to use their new-found knowledge of SLA.
With respect to the second research question In what ways do content area teachers need and benefit from SLA? Specifically, the project participants described why SLA was useful, explaining that they had a better understanding of strategies and rationale behind the research-based practices that they use in the classroom. Others provided similar feedback, indicating that since taking the SLA course, they had had a strong foundation and clear understanding about the history and rationale behind research-based ESL methodology.
Teachers also indicated that SLA theory helped them by correcting or clarifying misunderstandings for themselves or even for other teachers. That is, she was debunking a commonly held idea that younger learners are always better language learners, as well as addressing other important notions including order of acquisition and how attitudes and affect can play a role in the second language acquisition process.
So, the teacher was using the knowledge learned in the SLA course to evaluate how the SLA knowledge could affect the students, for ostensible practice in her classroom. Thus, the knowledge acquired in the SLA course they took helped the participants to elaborate on the importance of this and other sets of SLA theories to understand the needs of ELLs in the classroom L2 acquisition.
Teachers don't understand the needs of these students and if a student is not showing progress or becomes a behavior problem it is often times because they are bored or they don't understand and if teachers had professional development this could be recognized and dealt with before the student becomes a problem within the classroom. Their new knowledge, then, helped the teachers to reflect deeply on long-held beliefs and encouraged them to relate this to their students in their classes.
A particularly interesting finding is that participants considered that SLA expanded their role as content teachers. We are also language teachers. While in the previous comment, the teacher desired to expand into the role of a language teacher; in the following one, the teacher expressed an interest in becoming an action researcher: Teachers who want to provide the best environment for their students will want to know SLA theory so that they may choose strategies that lead to success.
In addition, they will be reflective teachers and collect data in their own classrooms. Using this information, they will observe and note behaviors and responses.
Application of theory. Responses from participants addressed the idea that theory could be translated to practice research question 3 in some ways. That is, the teachers addressed some aspects of SLA research question 4 they thought could be useful to them as teachers.
Many of these aspects were rooted in communication and interaction. A teacher expressed it in this way: I will focus on both social and academic language, I will emphasize form-focus instruction, I will make certain that my ELLs read, I will pair my ELLs strategically, I will provide timely and positive corrective feedback, and most of all I will create an inviting and positive atmosphere. Similar comments by other teachers reflected their comprehension of how practice is rooted in research.
A teacher proposed this translation of theory to practice: I will assess the students based on their ability to communicate using academic language versus their social language. Last year I based my assessment of student improvement on social language without even realizing it. I failed to recognize that social conversation is not reflected in academic achievement. Aspects of SLA.
Language learning is a long, complex process. With their newly acquired knowledge of L2 acquisition process, teachers were able to generate reflective recommendations to their colleagues regarding the complexity of language development for their students.
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They also acknowledged the research which indicates that it takes much longer to be successful in the language of school academic language, also called cognitive academic language proficiency, or CALP than it is to be able to converse about non-academic topics social language or basic interpersonal communication skills -BICS. As participants recognized the importance of PD on SLA for all teachers and, although challenging, of SLA application in the classroom, they were able to make recommendations to their colleagues.
These recommendations were related to collaboration and conversation, and to making content comprehensible.
Showing a deeper understanding of the relationship between language acquisition and content comprehension, project participants were very specific about the type of strategies and tools they and their colleagues should use with their ELLs.
The same teacher further recommended The link between theory and practice was thus seen here.
In response to this idea of translating theory to practice, the teachers also addressed the importance of engagement and communication, and the emphasis on academic language and form-focused instruction as issues faced by the teachers in their own application of SLA.
Survey participants expressed that while they were in fact able to apply the SLA theory they learned into a practice in their classrooms, it was nonetheless challenging and somewhat difficult. Problems included issues with: 1 lack of background knowledge; 2 the idea that that SLA theory can be contradictory; 3 the multitude of new information, terms and theories from the discipline; 4 and the simple or not so simple matter of coming up with effective and innovative ways of applying the theory to their daily practice in mathematics, science, English language arts, social studies, and other such disciplines.
Specific difficulties the teachers experienced in working with SLA as novices had to do with background knowledge, be it the lack thereof, or the mismatch with differing kinds of background knowledge. In this case, we saw that background information could be problematic for teachers, just as we know it is for students when learning new, challenging content.
Translating theory into practice also involved analyzing different and sometimes seemingly contradictory postulates. Finally, a breakthrough occurred for some participants as they understood that, although challenging, they were able to translate SLA theories into their practice as content area teachers.
Applicability for colleagues. Some of the respondents felt it was difficult to put all the different ideas about SLA into clear instructions for teachers, as in a PD session. Others reflected more globally, in reference to how district and state-mandated curricula can be developed for all teachers for a one-size-fits-all classroom.
Variety is important in language teaching, and a succession of games based on the same principles, though exciting and novel at first, would soon pall.
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This 3rd edition has been completely rewritten and updated to combine the best of traditional approaches with the latest developments in language teaching theory and methodology.
The world of English. Describing language. Describing learners.
Describing teacher. Cambridge University Press, The revised second edition contains: Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No.
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